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The alias command-line tool is both useful and relatively simple. Its purpose is to simplify a single-line command by creating a custom name for it. There is a good chance that you already have some aliases even if you've never used the tool. In Bash, aliases can be created with a simple text editor and are stored in your $HOME/.bashrc file. If you want to see what aliases have been set up, take look at that file, or simply type alias on a command line and press Enter/Return.
In previous articles about Linux filesystems, I wrote an introduction to Linux filesystems and about some higher-level concepts such as everything is a file. I want to go into more detail about the specifics of the EXT filesystems, but first, let's answer the question, "What is a filesystem?" A filesystem is all of the following:
"A good engineer is a lazy engineer," some will say. And to a certain extent, it's true: Laziness is a great quality if you're automating repetitive tasks. But laziness flies in the face of learning new technologies and getting new work done. Somewhere between Junior Systems Administrator and Senior DevOps Engineer, laziness no longer becomes an advantage.
Let's discuss the five laws aspiring DevOps engineers should follow if they want to become great DevOps engineers.
DevOps is mostly about culture change. Being successful is all about finding ways to bridge the gap between the builders and the maintainers, bringing projects to fruition and updating them in shorter cycles to maintain a competitive advantage. But at the end of the day, you need the right tooling to make it all work.
By Ali Ahmadi, Product Manager, and John Angelo, Product Designer
Redesigned Trending Results Page
Starting today, we’re introducing a redesigned Trending results page, which is the page you see when you click on a Trending topic to learn more about it.
You’ve always been able to click on a topic to see related posts and stories, but we’ve redesigned the page to make it easier to discover other publications that are covering the story, as well as what your friends and public figures are saying about it.
You’ll be able to see the new results page on iPhone in the US, and we plan to make it available on Android and desktop soon.
Now, when you click on a Trending topic, you’ll see a carousel with stories from other publications about a given topic that you can swipe through. By making it easier to see what other news outlets are saying about each topic, we hope that people will feel more informed about the news in their region.
The stories that appear in this section are some of the most popular stories about that topic on Facebook. These stories are determined the same way as the featured headline — using a combination of factors including the engagement around the article on Facebook, the engagement around the publisher overall, and whether other articles are linking to it.
There is no predetermined list of publications that are eligible to appear in Trending and this update does not affect how Trending topics are identified, which we announced earlier this year.
Making Trending Easier to Discover On Mobile
One of the things we regularly hear from people who use Trending is that it can be difficult to find in the Facebook mobile app. We’re soon beginning a test in News Feed that will show people the top three Trending stories, which they can click on to see the full list of Trending topics and explore what people are discussing on Facebook.
While most people will not see Trending in their News Feed as part of this small test, we hope that it will help us learn how to make Trending as useful and informative for people as possible. If you do see the Trending unit in your News Feed, you have the option to remove it in the drop-down menu which will prevent it from being shown to you in the future.
As before, we continue to listen to feedback about Trending and will keep making improvements in order to provide a valuable experience.
Facebook is a place where people come together to connect with their communities and support one another in meaningful ways. Today, we are giving people another way to mobilize around causes they care about by expanding personal fundraisers to everyone over 18 in the US and by adding two new categories – community and sports.
We began testing personal fundraisers, a new product that allows people to raise money for a friend, themselves or a sick pet directly on Facebook, in March. Since then, we’ve been inspired by the response to create them and the support felt by those they benefit.
People can create a fundraiser to quickly raise money on Facebook and easily reach their friends in a few taps, without leaving Facebook, and can share fundraisers to help build momentum. People can learn about the person who created the fundraiser and the person benefiting from the fundraiser, as well as see which friends have donated. Now people can raise money for any of the following categories:
- Education: such as tuition, books or classroom supplies
- Medical: such as medical procedures, treatments or injuries
- Pet Medical: such as veterinary procedures, treatments or injuries
- Crisis Relief: such as public crises or natural disasters
- Personal Emergency: such as a house fire, theft or car accident
- Funeral and Loss: such as burial expenses or living costs after losing a loved one
- Sports: such as equipment, competitions or team fees
- Community: such as neighborhood services, community improvements or environmental improvements
Nonprofit fundraisers continue to be available for people on Facebook to raise funds and awareness for 501(c)(3) nonprofits.
It’s easy to get started:
- On mobile, tap the menu icon and select Fundraisers, or on desktop, go to facebook.com/fundraisers
- Choose to raise money for a Friend, Yourself or Someone or Something Not on Facebook
- Give your fundraiser a title and compelling story, and start raising money
All fundraisers are reviewed within 24 hours. Personal fundraisers are available on all devices, and have a 6.9% + $0.30 fee that goes to payment processing, fundraiser vetting, and security and fraud protection. Facebook’s goal is to create a platform for good that’s sustainable over the long-term, and not to make a profit from our charitable giving tools.
We’re constantly inspired by the good people on Facebook do, and we’re excited to learn more about how people use this new product so we can continue improving the experience.
Find out more about Facebook fundraisers at facebook.com/fundraisers.
Joining any new company—with an established culture and programming practices—can be a daunting experience. When I joined the Ansible team, I decided to write up the software engineering practices and principles I’ve learned over the years and to which I strive to work. This is a non-definitive, non-exhaustive list of principles that should be applied with wisdom and flexibility.
The things we do for family, eh? Sometimes I wonder why I do it to myself, this not being the first time my perfectionism has led me to do far more work than a task originally required.
When you think of open source technologies, you probably think of the stalwarts, the technologies that have been around for years and years. It makes sense: According to a survey conducted in Q4 of 2016 by my company, Greythorn, 30%+ of participants said established technologies are among the top ten they primarily use.
We know Facebook Live is better with friends. We’ve been working on ways to make Live more fun, social and interactive, like with the new Live interactive effects we announced last month. Today we’re excited to announce two new features that make it easier to share experiences and connect in real time with your friends on Live.
Live Chat With Friends
One of the best things about Live is that you can discuss what’s happening in the broadcast in real time. In fact, people comment more than 10 times more on Facebook Live videos than on regular videos. When it comes to compelling public broadcasts — such as a breaking news event, a Q&A with your favorite actor or behind-the-scenes action after a big game — watching with the community and reading comments is an exciting part of the experience. We know sometimes people also want the option to interact with only their friends during a public live broadcast, so we’re rolling out Live Chat With Friends.
Live Chat With Friends lets you invite friends to a private chat about a public live broadcast. You can invite friends who are already watching or other friends who you think may want to tune in. You’re able to jump back into the public conversation at any time, and you can still continue chatting with your friends via Messenger after the broadcast ends.
With Live Chat With Friends, you can be part of big moments with the wider community but also have the option to participate in personal conversations with the people closest to you, directly within the Live experience. We’re testing this feature on mobile in several countries, and we look forward to making it available more broadly later this summer.
Last year we started rolling out the ability for public figures to go live with a guest. Now available for all profiles and Pages on iOS, Live With lets you invite a friend into your live video so you can hang out together, even if you’re not in the same place. Sharing the screen with a friend can make going live more fun and interactive — for both you and your viewers.
To invite a friend to join you in your live video, simply select a guest from the Live Viewers section, or tap a comment from the viewer you want to invite. Your viewer can then choose whether or not to join your broadcast. You can go live with a guest in both portrait mode (for a picture-in-picture experience) and landscape mode (for a side-by-side experience). For a full tutorial, click here.
We’re excited to see how people use these Facebook Live features to come together around moments big and small.
By Monika Bickert, Head of Global Policy Management
Last month, people shared several horrific videos on Facebook of Syrian children in the aftermath of a chemical weapons attack. The videos, which also appeared elsewhere on the internet, showed the children shaking, struggling to breathe and eventually dying.
The images were deeply shocking – so much so that we placed a warning screen in front of them. But the images also prompted international outrage and renewed attention on the plight of Syrians.
Reviewing online material on a global scale is challenging and essential. As the person in charge of doing this work for Facebook, I want to explain how and where we draw the line.
On an average day, more than a billion people use Facebook. They share posts in dozens of languages: everything from photos to live videos. A very small percentage of those will be reported to us for investigation. The range of issues is broad – from bullying and hate speech to terrorism – and complex. Designing policies that both keep people safe and enable them to share freely means understanding emerging social issues and the way they manifest themselves online, and being able to respond quickly to millions of reports a week from people all over the world.
For our reviewers, there is another hurdle: understanding context. It’s hard to judge the intent behind one post, or the risk implied in another. Someone posts a graphic video of a terrorist attack. Will it inspire people to emulate the violence, or speak out against it? Someone posts a joke about suicide. Are they just being themselves, or is it a cry for help?
In the UK, being critical of the monarchy might be acceptable. In some parts of the world it will get you a jail sentence. Laws can provide guidance, but often what’s acceptable is more about norms and expectations. New ways to tell stories and share images can bring these tensions to the surface faster than ever.
We aim to keep our site safe. We don’t always share the details of our policies, because we don’t want to encourage people to find workarounds – but we do publish our Community Standards, which set out what is and isn’t allowed on Facebook, and why.
Our standards change over time. We are in constant dialogue with experts and local organizations, on everything from child safety to terrorism to human rights. Sometimes this means our policies can seem counterintuitive. As the Guardian reported, experts in self-harm advised us that it can be better to leave live videos of self-harm running so that people can be alerted to help, but to take them down afterwards to prevent copycats. When a girl in Georgia, USA, attempted suicide on Facebook Live two weeks ago, her friends were able to notify police, who managed to reach her in time.
We try hard to stay objective. The cases we review aren’t the easy ones: they are often in a grey area where people disagree. Art and pornography aren’t always easily distinguished, but we’ve found that digitally generated images of nudity are more likely to be pornographic than handmade ones, so our policy reflects that.
There’s a big difference between general expressions of anger and specific calls for a named individual to be harmed, so we allow the former but don’t permit the latter.
These tensions – between raising awareness of violence and promoting it, between freedom of expression and freedom from fear, between bearing witness to something and gawking at it – are complicated, and there are rarely universal legal standards to provide clarity. Being as objective as possible is the only way we can be consistent across the world. But we still sometimes end up making the wrong call.
The hypothetical situations we use to train reviewers are intentionally extreme. They’re designed to help the people who do this work deal with the most difficult cases. When we first created our content standards nearly a decade ago, much was left to the discretion of individual employees. But because no two people will have identical views of what defines hate speech or bullying – or any number of other issues – we now include clear definitions.
We face criticism from people who want more censorship and people who want less. We see that as a useful signal that we are not leaning too far in any one direction.
I hope that readers will understand that we take our role extremely seriously. For many of us on the team within Facebook, safety is a passion that predates our work at the company: I spent more than a decade as a criminal prosecutor, investigating everything from child sexual exploitation to terrorism. Our team also includes a counter extremism expert from the UK, the former research director of West Point’s Combating Terrorism Center, a rape crisis center worker, and a teacher.
All of us know there is more we can do. Last month, we announced that we are hiring an extra 3,000 reviewers. This is demanding work, and we will continue to do more to ensure we are giving them the right support, both by making it easier to escalate hard decisions quickly and by providing the psychological support they need.
Technology has given more people more power to communicate more widely than ever before. We believe the benefits of sharing far outweigh the risks. But we also recognize that society is still figuring out what is acceptable and what is harmful, and that we, at Facebook, can play an important part of that conversation.
Linux, in keeping with Unix traditions, doesn't have a comprehensive systems management API. Instead, management is done through a variety of special-purpose tools and APIs, all with their own conventions and idiosyncrasies. That makes scripting even simple systems-management tasks difficult and brittle.
As a principal agile coach, my focus is to energize and inspire developers to adopt and follow through on the agile frameworks across our teams. Initially, I failed, as I didn't really understand the mindset of teams that have been working in an open source ecosystem. My assumption was that since agile and open source values align so closely, the barrier for adopting agile frameworks would be low and our people would take to it like fish to water.
When you're working in an organization where statements like "Good ideas can come from anyone" and "Experiment! We learn more from our mistakes than our successes!" are commonplace, does saying "no" create a contradiction that impedes adaptability and inclusivity?
The answer depends on how you say "no" and the things you say "no" to.
I've been a fan of the Squeezebox ever since I acquired Logitech's now-obsolete Squeezebox Touch, which my family is still using.
If you're a homeschool parent or a teacher with a limited budget, Internet-in-a-Box might be just what you've been looking for. Its hardware requirements are very modest—a Raspberry Pi 3, a 64GB microSD card, and a power supply—but it provides access to a wealth of educational resources, even to students without internet access in the most remote areas of the world.
The journey to documentation begins before you think it does, on the very first page of your site. Users look at your website or GitHub—and often the examples and demos you post there—before they read any of your guides.
In this week's Top 5, we highlight text editor tips, managing macOS, and several takes on programming.Top 5 articles of the week
The D programming language is a statically typed, general purpose programming language with C-like syntax that compiles to native code. It's a good fit in open source software development for many reasons; here are some of them.
Internet relay chat (IRC) is one of the oldest chat protocols around and still popular in many open source communities. IRC's best strengths are as a decentralized and open communication method, making it easy for anyone to participate by running a network of their own. There are also a variety of clients and bots available for IRC.